La présente étude porte sur la réception russe de l’ouvrage d’Edward Saïd, Orientalisme. Même si cet ouvrage ne parle que très peu de la Russie, un certain . PDF | Mehmet Ümit Necef: Sex and Orientalism – with Gustave Flaubert in Hamam In his influential study “Orientalism“ Edward Said almost demonises the. Orientalisme d’Edward Said. Nilgun Tutal. Uploaded by. Nilgun Tutal. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email.
|Genre:||Health and Food|
|Published (Last):||22 March 2010|
|PDF File Size:||10.5 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.96 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Orientalism is a book by Edward W.
Saidin which the author discusses Orientalismdefined as the West ‘s patronizing representations of ” The East “—the societies and peoples who inhabit the places of Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East. According to Said, orientalism the Western scholarship about the Orintalisme World is inextricably tied to the imperialist societies who produced it, which makes much Orientalist work inherently political and servile to power.
The critical application of post-structuralism in the scholarship of Orientalism influenced the development of literary theorycultural criticismand the field of Middle Eastern studiesespecially regarding how academics practice their intellectual enquiry when examining, describing, and explaining the Middle East.
As a public intellectualEdward Said debated Orientalism with historians and scholars of area studiesnotably, the historian Bernard Lewiswho described the thesis of Orientalism as “anti-Western”. The principal characteristic of Orientalism orientalisne a “subtle and persistent Eurocentric prejudice against Arab-Islamic peoples and their culture”, which derives from Western images of what is Oriental cultural representations that reduce the Orient to the fictional essences of “Oriental peoples” and “the places of the Orient”; such cultural representations dominate the communications discourse of Western peoples with and about non-Western peoples.
In that vein, about contemporary Orientalist stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims, Said said:. So far as the United States seems to be concerned, it is only a slight overstatement to say that Moslems and Arabs are essentially seen as either oil suppliers or potential terrorists. Very little of the detail, the human density, the passion of Arab—Moslem saud has entered the awareness of even those people whose profession it is to report the Arab world.
What we have, instead, is a series of crude, essentialized caricatures of the Islamic world, presented in such a way as to make that world vulnerable to military aggression. Orientalism proposes that much of the Western study of Islamic civilization was an exercise in political intellectualism ; a psychological exercise oirentalisme the self-affirmation of ” European identity “; not an objective exercise of intellectual enquiry and the academic study of Eastern cultures.
Therefore, Orientalism was a edaard of practical and cultural discrimination that was applied to non-European societies and peoples in order to establish European imperial domination. In justification of empire, the Orientalist claims to know more—essential and definitive knowledge—about the Orient than do the Orientals.
That the history of European colonial rule and political domination of Eastern civilizations, distorts the intellectual objectivity of even the most knowledgeable, well-meaning, and culturally sympathetic Western Orientalist; thus did the term “Orientalism” become a pejorative word regarding non—Western peoples and cultures: I doubt if it is controversial, for example, to say that an Englishman in India, or Egypt, in the later nineteenth century, took an interest in those countries, which was never far from their status, in his mind, as British colonies.
To say this may seem quite different from saying that all academic knowledge about India and Egypt is somehow tinged and impressed with, violated by, the gross political fact—and yet that is what I am saying in this study of Orientalism. Towards the end of his life for instance, Said argued that sid representations are essential for the function of human life and societies — as essential as language itself — what must cease ddward representations that are authoritatively repressive, because they do not provide any real possibilities for those being represented to intervene in this process.
Said said that the Western world sought to dominate the Eastern world for more than 2, years, since Classical antiquity 8th c. In the course of empire, after the physical-and-political conquest, there followed the intellectual conquest of a people, whereby Western scholars appropriated for themselves as European intellectual property the interpretation and translation of Oriental languages, and the critical study of the cultures and histories of the Oriental world.
Orientalism concluded that “Western knowledge of the Eastern world”, i. Orientalism fictionally depicts the Orient as an irrational, psychologically weak, and feminized, non-European Otherwhich is negatively contrasted with the rational, psychologically strong, and masculine West. Such a binary relation, in a hierarchy of weakness and strength, derives from the European psychological need to create a difference of cultural inequality, between West and East, which inequality is attributable to “immutable cultural essences ” inherent to Oriental peoples and things.
The contemporary, historical impact of Orientalism was in explaining the How? The Western world had been surprised, by the pro-active and decisive actions of non-Western peoples, whom the ideology of Orientalism had defined as essentially weak societies and impotent countries. The geopolitical reality of their actions, of military and economic warfare, voided the fictional nature of Orientalist representationsattitudes, and opinions about the non-Western Other self.
Literature here is understood as a kind of carrier and distributor of ideology. The greatest intellectual impact of Orientalism was upon the fields of literary theorycultural studiesand human geographyby way of which originated the field of Post-colonial studies.
As a work of cultural criticism, Orientalism is the foundation document in the field of Post-colonialismbecause the thesis proved historically factual, true, and accurate for the periods studied; and for the How? Post-colonial theory studies the power and the continued dominance of Western ways of intellectual enquiry and the production of knowledge in the academic, intellectual, and cultural spheres of the de-colonised country.
Said’s survey concentrated upon the British and the French varieties of Orientalism that supported the British Empire and the French Empire as commercial enterprises constructed from colonialism, and gave perfunctory coverage, discussion, and analyses of German Orientalist scholarship. In ssid fields of literary criticism and of cultural studiesthe notable Indian scholars of post-colonialism were Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak In Other Worlds: A People Interrupted Writing History and the WestRobert J.
Young reported Post-colonial explanations of the “How? In the late s, sadi survey range of Orientalism did not include the genre of Orientalist painting or any other visual arts, despite the book-cover featuring a detail-image of The Snake Charmera popular, 19th-century Orientalist painting—to which the writer Linda Nochlin applied Said’s method of critical analysis “with uneven results”.
The historian Gyan Prakash said that Orientalism describes how “the hallowed image of the Orientalist, as an austere figure, unconcerned with the world and immersed in the mystery of foreign scripts and languages, has acquired a dark hue as the murky business of ruling other peoplesnow forms the essential and enabling background of his or her scholarship” about the Orient; without colonial imperialism, there would be no Orientalism.
That overcoming such intellectual malaise requires that area scholars choose to orisntalisme their “mind-forg’d manacles” and orientalidme reflect upon the basic cultural assumptions of their area-studies scholarship.
Orientalism proved intellectually, professionally, and personally controversial. In a review of a book by Ibn WarraqAmerican classicist Bruce Thornton dismissed Orientalism as an “incoherent amalgam of dubious postmodern theory, sentimental Third Worldism, glaring historical errors, and Western guilt”.
In the book-review article “Enough Said”about Dangerous Knowledgeby Robert Irwinin the preface paragraphs, Martin Kramer recapitulates the professional trials and tribulations of and repercussions to Orientalists caused by Orientalism oriemtalisme In Dangerous KnowledgeIrwin relates that the 19th-century English Arabist Edward William Lanecompiler of the great Arabic-English Lexicon , “used to complain that he had become so used to the cursive calligraphy of his Arabic manuscripts that he found Western print a great strain on his eyes.
Orientalism, in its heyday, was a branch of knowledge as demanding and rigorous as its near cousin, Egyptology. The first International Congress of Orientalists met in ; its name was not changed until a full century later.
But there are no self-declared Orientalists today. The orientailsme is that the late Edward Said turned the word into a pejorative. In his book Orientalismthe Palestinian-born Said, a professor of comparative literature at Columbia University, claimed that an endemic Western prejudice against the Prientalisme had congealed into a modern ideology of racist supremacy—a kind of anti-Semitism directed against Arabs and Muslims. Throughout Europe’s history, announced Said, “every European, in that he could say about the Orient, was a racist, an imperialist, and almost totally ethnocentric.
In a semantic sleight of hand, Said appropriated the term “Orientalism”, as a label for the ideological prejudice he described, thereby, neatly implicating the scholars who called themselves Orientalists. At best, charged Said, the work of these scholars was biased, so as to confirm the inferiority of Islam. At worst, Orientalists had directly served European empires, showing proconsuls how best to conquer and control Muslims.
To substantiate his indictment, Said cherry-picked evidence, ignored whatever contradicted his thesis, and filled the gaps with conspiracy theories.
Orientalisme d’Edward Said | Nilgun Tutal –
Nonetheless, the literary critic Paul De Man said that, as a literary critic, “Said took a step further than any other modern scholar of his time, something I dare not do. I remain in the safety of rhetorical analysis, where criticism is the second-best thing I do. In the book review, “The Mightier Pen? In “Disraeli as an Orientalist: The Polemical Errors of Edward Said”Mark Proudman noted incorrect 19th-century history in Orientalismthat the geographic extent of the British Empire was not from Egypt to India in the s, because the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire in that time intervened between those poles of empire.
In For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their EnemiesRobert Irwin said that Said’s concentrating the scope of Orientalism to the Middle East, especially Palestine and Egypt, was a mistake, because the Mandate of Palestine — and British Egypt — only were under direct European control for a short time, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; thus are poor examples for Said’s theory of Western cultural imperialism.
That Orientalism should have concentrated upon good examples of imperialism and cultural hegemonysuch as the British Raj of India — and Russia’s dominions in Asia —but he did not, because, as a public intellectualEdward Said was more interested in making political points about the politics of the Middle East, in general, and of Palestine, in particular.
Not only did Europeans study Japan without any hope of colonizing it, but Japanese academics played a prominent role as informants and interlocutors in this academic discipline, providing information both on their own practices and history and on the history of China. In the article “Said’s Splash”Martin Kramer said that, fifteen years after publication of Orientalismthe UCLA historian Nikki Keddie whom Said praised in Covering Islamwho originally had praised Orientalism as an ‘important, and, in many ways, positive’ book, had changed her mind.
In Approaches to the History of the Middle EastKeddie criticised Said’s work on Orientalism, for the unfortunate consequences upon her profession as an historian:. I think that there has been a tendency in the Middle East field to adopt the word “orientalism” as a generalized swear-word, essentially referring to people who take the “wrong” position on the Arab—Israeli disputeor to people who are judged too “conservative”.
It has nothing to do with whether they are good or not good in their disciplines. So, “orientalism”, for many people, is a word that substitutes for thought and enables people to dismiss certain scholars and their works.
I think that is too bad. It may not have been what Edward Said meant at all, but the term has become a kind of slogan. In the article, “Edward Said’s Shadowy Legacy”Robert Irwin said that Said ineffectively distinguished among writers of different centuries and genres of Orientalist literature.
That the disparate examples, such as the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — who never travelled to the Orient; the French novelist Gustave Flaubert — who briefly toured Egypt; the French Orientalist Ernest Renan —whose anti-Semitism voided his work; and the British Arabist Edward William Lane —who compiled the Arabic—English Lexicon —93 —did not constitute a comprehensive scope of investigation or critical comparison.
A Critique of Edward Said’s OrientalismIbn Warraq earlier had said that in Orientalism Said had constructed a binary-opposite representation, a fictional European stereotype that would counter-weigh the Oriental stereotype. Being European is the only common trait among such a temporally and stylistically disparate group of literary Orientalists.
Kejariwal said that with the creation of a monolithic Occidentalism to oppose the Orientalism of Western discourse with the Eastern world, Said had failed to distinguish, between the paradigms of Romanticism and the Enlightenmentand ignored the differences among Orientalists; and that he failed to acknowledge the positive contributions of Orientalists who sought kinship, between the worlds of the East and the West, rather than to create an artificial “difference” of cultural inferiority and superiority; such a man was William Jones —the British philologist—lexicographer who proposed that Indo—European languages are interrelated.
That Said failed to adequately distinguish between the genuine experiences of the Orient and the cultural projections of Westerners. In the sociological article, “Review: Who is Afraid of Edward Said?
Hence, in the article “Orients and Occidents: Washbrook said that Said and his academic cohort indulge in excessive cultural relativismwhich intellectual excess traps them in a ” web of solipsism “, which limits conversation exclusively to “cultural representations” and to denying the existence of any objective truth.
In the article “Orientalism Now”the historian Gyan Prakash said that Edward Said had explored fields of Orientalism already surveyed by his predecessors and contemporaries, such as V. KiernanBernard S.
Edward W. Said L’orientalisme L’ Orient Cree Par L’ Occident ( 2005)
Cohnand Anwar Abdel Malekwho also had studied, reported, and interpreted the social relationship that makes the practice of imperialism intellectually, psychologically, and ethically feasible; that is, the relationship between European imperial rule and European representations of the non-European Other self, the colonised people.
Nonetheless, George Landowof Brown University, who criticized Siad scholarship and contested his conclusions, acknowledged that Orientalism is zaid major work of cultural criticism.
In Octoberone month after the death of Edward W. Said — eeward, the Lebanese newspaper Daily Star recognized the intellectual import of the book, saying “Said’s critics agree with his admirers that he has single-handedly effected a revolution in Middle Eastern studies in the U. Middle Eastern Studies were taken over, by Edward Said’s postcolonial studies orientalimse “, Orientalism.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Accessed 4 January Iranian Memoirs in the “Land of the Free ” “. Retrieved 6 June Power, Politics, and Culture: Interviews with Edward W.
Western views of Islam in the Middle Ages Cambridge: Eastern Block book review of For Lust of Knowing: Essays in Cultural PoliticsLondon: Imagining IndiaNew York: Perspectives from Indian Historiography”. Comparative Studies in Society and History.
Castes of MindPrinceton: Buying and Selling the Istrian Goat: Russian Foreign Policy and Orientalism”.