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Authority refers to an interpersonal relation in which one person looks upon another as somebody superior to him. If we do not understand the language in which they are written, we miss a great deal of what we know and tell ourselves in those hours when we are not busy manipulating the outside world. In the twentieth century the problem is that man is dead. The most important product of his effort is his own personality. Creativeness means to be born before one dies.
It need not be acquired, it need not be deserved. The danger of the future is that man may become robots. It requires the most intense love on the mother’s side, yet this very love must help the child grow away from the mother, and to become fully independent.
Uncertainty is the very condition to impel man to unfold his powers. He started his academic studies in at the University of Frankfurt am Main with two semesters of jurisprudence. During the summer semester ofFromm studied at the University of Heidelberg, where he switched from studying jurisprudence to sociology under Alfred Weber brother of the better known sociologist Max Weberthe psychiatrist-philosopher Karl Jaspers, and Heinrich Rickert.
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Fromm received his Ph. During the mid s, he was trained to become a psychoanalyst through Frieda Reichmann’s psychoanalytic sanatorium in Heidelberg. He began his own clinical practice in Inhe joined the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research and completed his psychoanalytical training.
Karen Horney’s long-term infatuation with Fromm is the subject of her book Self Analysis and it is reasonable to believe that each had a lasting influence on the other’s thought.
He was on the faculty of Bennington College from to Meanwhile, he taught as a professor of psychology at Michigan State University from to and as an adjunct professor of psychology at the graduate division of Arts and Sciences at New York University after In he moved from Mexico City to Muralto, Switzerland, and died at his home infive days before his eightieth birthday.
All the while, Fromm maintained his own clinical practice and published a series of books. Indeed, Escape from Freedom is viewed as one of the founding works of Political psychology. His second important work, Man for Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethicsfirst published incontinued and enriched the ideas of Escape from Freedom. Taken together, these books outlined Fromm’s theory of human character, which was a natural outgrowth of Fromm’s theory of human nature.
Fromm’s most popular book was The Art of Lovingan international bestseller first published inwhich recapitulated and complemented the theoretical principles of human nature found in Escape from Freedom and Man for Himself —principles which were revisited in many of Fromm’s other major works. Central to Fromm’s world view was his interpretation of the Talmud, which he began studying as a young man under Rabbi J.
Horowitz and later studied under Rabbi Salman Baruch Rabinkow while working towards his doctorate in sociology at the University of Heidelberg and under Nehemia Nobel and Ludwig Krause while studying in Frankfurt. Fromm’s grandfather and two great grandfathers on his father’s side were rabbis, and a great uncle on his mother’s side was a noted Talmudic scholar.
Etica y Psicoanalisis
However, Fromm turned away from orthodox Judaism intowards secular interpretations of scriptural ideals. The cornerstone of Fro,m humanistic philosophy is his interpretation of the biblical story of Adam and Eve’s exile from the Garden of Eden. Drawing on his knowledge of the Talmud, Fromm pointed out that being able to distinguish between good and evil is generally considered to be a psicoanxlisis, and that biblical scholars generally consider Adam and Eve to have sinned by disobeying God and eating from the Tree of Knowledge.
However, departing from traditional religious orthodoxy, Fromm extolled the virtues of humans taking independent action and using reason to establish moral values rather than adhering to authoritarian moral values. Beyond a simple condemnation of authoritarian value systems, Fromm used etixa story of Adam and Eve as an allegorical explanation for human biological evolution and existential angst, asserting that when Adam and Eve ate from the Tree of Knowledge, they became aware of themselves as being separate from nature while still being part of it.
This is why they felt “naked” and “ashamed”: According to Fromm, the awareness of eirch disunited human existence is a source of guilt and shame, and the solution to this existential dichotomy is found in the development of one’s uniquely psicoanxlisis powers of love and reason.
However, Fromm distinguished his concept of love from unreflective popular notions as well as Freudian paradoxical love see criticism by Marcuse below. Fromm considered love to be an interpersonal creative capacity rather than an emotion, and he distinguished this creative capacity from what he considered to be various forms of narcissistic neuroses and sado-masochistic tendencies that are commonly held out psicoanaliwis proof of “true love.
Drawing from his knowledge of the Torah, Fromm pointed to the story of Jonah, who did not wish to save the residents of Nineveh from the consequences of their sin, as demonstrative of his belief that the qualities of care and responsibility are generally absent from most human relationships. Fromm also asserted that few people in modern society had respect for the autonomy of their fellow human beings, much less the objective knowledge of what other people truly wanted and needed.
Fromm believed that freedom was an aspect of human nature that we either embrace or escape. He observed that embracing our freedom of will was healthy, whereas escaping freedom through the use of escape mechanisms was the root of psychological conflicts. Fromm outlined three of the most common escape mechanisms: Automaton conformity is changing one’s ideal self to conform to a perception of society’s preferred type of personality, losing one’s true self in the process.
Automaton conformity displaces the burden of choice from self to society. Authoritarianism is giving control of oneself to another. By submitting one’s freedom to someone else, this act removes the freedom of choice almost entirely. Lastly, destructiveness is any process which attempts to eliminate others or the world as a whole, all to escape freedom.
Fromm said that “the destruction of the world is the last, almost desperate attempt to save myself from being crushed by it” The word biophilia was frequently used by Fromm as a description of a productive psychological orientation and “state of being”.
For example, in an addendum to his book The Heart of Man: These can be presented separately or together: Relatedness Relationships with others, care, respect, knowledge. Transcendence Creativity, developing a loving and interesting life. Rootedness Feeling of belonging.
Sense of Identity Seeing ourselves as a unique person and part of a social psicoanalizis. Frame of orientation Understanding the world and our place in it. Excitation and Stimulation Actively striving for a goal rather than simply respond. Unity A sense of oneness between one person and the “natural and human world outside. Fromm’s thesis of the “escape from freedom” is epitomized in the following passage.
The “individualized man” referenced by Fromm is man bereft of the “primary ties” of belonging i. However, if the economic, social and political conditions It then becomes identical with doubt, with a kind of life which lacks meaning and direction.
Powerful tendencies arise to escape from this kind of freedom into submission or some kind of relationship to man and the world which erifh relief from uncertainty, even if it deprives the individual of his freedom. The point is repeated on pp.
Six orientations Fromm also spoke of “orientation of character” in his book Man For Himselfwhich describes the ways an individual relates to the world and constitutes his general character, and develops from two specific kinds of relatedness to the world: Fromm considers these character systems the human substitute for instincts in animals. These orientations describe how a man has developed in regard to how he responds to conflicts in his or her life; he also said that people were never pure in any such orientation.
These two factors form five types of malignant character, which he calls Receptive, Exploitative, Hoarding,Necrophilous and Marketing. He also described a positive character, which he called Productive. Fromm’s influence on other notable psychologists Fromm’s four non-productive orientations were subject to validation through a psychometric test, The Person Relatedness Test by Elias H.
He identified a discrepancy between early and later Freudian theory: Fromm charged Freud and his followers with never acknowledging the contradictions between the two theories.
He also criticized Freud’s dualistic thinking. According to Fromm, Freudian descriptions of human consciousness as struggles between two poles was narrow and limiting.
Fromm also condemned him as a misogynist unable to think outside the patriarchal milieu of early 20th century Vienna. However, Fromm expressed a great respect for Freud and his accomplishments, in spite of these criticisms. As to the current view that Freud was against religion and his former pupil, C.
Jung was for it, Fromm made a careful analysis, which shed new light on the subject. In Escape from Freedomhe found favor with the lack of individual freedom, rigid structure, and obligations required on the members of medieval society: What characterizes medieval in contrast to modern society is its lack of individual freedomBut altogether a person was not free in the modern sense, neither yy he alone and isolated.
In having a distinct, unchangeable, and unquestionable place in the social world from the moment of birth, man was rooted in a structuralized whole, and thus life had a meaning which left no place, and no need for doubtThere was comparatively little competition. One was born into a certain economic position which guaranteed a livelihood determined by tradition, just as it carried economic obligations to those higher in the social hierarchy. The culmination of Fromm’s social and political philosophy was his book The Sane Societypublished inwhich argued in favor of humanistic and democratic socialism.
Building primarily upon the psicoanwlisis works of Karl Marx, Fromm sought to re-emphasise the ideal of freedom, missing from most Soviet Marxism, and more frequently found in the writings of libertarian socialists and liberal theoreticians.
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Fromm’s brand of socialism rejected both Western capitalism and Soviet communism, which he saw as dehumanizing and that resulted in a virtually universal modern phenomenon of alienation. He became one of the founders of socialist humanism, promoting the early writings of Marx and his humanist messages to the US and Western European publics. Inworking to stimulate the Western and Eastern cooperation between Marxist humanists, Fromm published a series of articles entitled Socialist Humanism: For a period, Fromm was also active in US politics.
He joined the Socialist Party of America in the mids, and did his best to help them provide an alternative viewpoint to the prevailing McCarthyism of the time.